2Department of Gastroenterology, Ankara University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkiye
3Department of Pathology, Ankara City Hospital, Ankara, Turkiye
4Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Ankara City Hospital, Ankara, Turkiye
Hepatoportal sclerosis (HPS) is an idiopathic non-cirrhotic portal hypertension (INCPH) characterized by hypersplenism, portal hypertension, and splenomegaly. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common form of liver cancer. Non-cirrhotic portal hypertension is an extremely rare cause of HCC. A 36-year-old woman was referred to our hospital with esophageal varices. All serologic tests for etiology were negative. Serum ceruloplasmin and serum Ig A-M-G were normal. In the follow-up, two liver lesions were identified on a triple-phase computer. The lesions had arterial enhancement but no washout in the venous phase. In the magnetic resonance imaging examination, differentiation in favor of HCC was considered at one of the lessions. Radiofrequency ablation therapy was first applied to a patient who had no signs of metastasis. Within 2 months, the patient underwent a living donor liver transplant. In explant pathology, well-differentiated HCC and HPS were considered the cause of non-cirrhotic portal hypertension. The patient has been followed without relapse for 3 years. The development of HCC in INCPH patients is still debatable. Despite the presence of liver cell atypia and pleomorphism in nodular regenerative hyperplasia liver specimens, a causal link between HCC and INCPH is yet to be established.